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Edgard Varèse - Ionisation

An analytical section by section breakdown

1) Texture 1
2) Texture 2
3) Texture 3
4) Linear Elaborations
5) Verticalization of Textures
6) Texture I Version II
7) Linear Elaborations Version II
8) Culmination of Elaborations
9) Conclusion
 

More Edgard Varèse

 

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation - Texture I

First impressions:

A bass drum followed by a cymbal that repeats itself three times, is also accompanied by a siren sound. Another key instrument heard is a snare playing fast in the opening two bars and is also heard as part of the crescendo. The overall dynamic level moves from a quiet introduction to a loud ending where a crescendo of cymbals and gongs play an important part. This is followed by a different snare playing a quartet of notes.

Thematic instruments:

  • Cymbal
  • Siren
  • Snare (low)
  • Bass drum
  • Sleigh bells

Structual thought:

From the start two bass drums of slightly different skin tension play one after the other followed by the use of a gong sound. The role of the gong is to act as synthetic articulation to the bass drum. The first bar also includes parts of the metallic instruments inventory, one of the main thematic pieces to Texture I. These also play an important part at bar seven where the crescendo of metallic instruments begins. Their removal at bar five is also important as it allows the reverberant qualities of the metallic instruments to diminish, making way for the bongos and maracas motives. Both sirens are used in this texture rising slowly in pitch before being removed at bar eight. At bar eight is the lions roar (string drum) it's intentions here could be to act as an effect to the sirens decay as it stops. A quartet of notes from the tambour militaire bring this texture to an end

Graphic example:

cursor for Edgard Varèse - Ionisation Texture 1

Frequency analysis:

spectrial

Varèse shows in the first Texture the importance of frequency positioning with scoring that avoids confliction. The black arrows indicate the first two parts played by the bass drum and gong. The white arrow shows third part of the bass drum, at this point the maracas and tambourine are also used. The similarities between the second black arrow and the white arrow indicate that if Varèse had used the tambourine or maracas they would not have been heard clearly. The pink arrows show the crescendo taking place, this is further proof of Varèse's understanding of each instruments sound development. The dark blue area of the frequency chart is not covered until the crescendo takes place, it could be feasible to suggest that other new instruments are used to cover this area; however this is not the case.

Arrow discription:

arrow1
arrow2

The gong is played just after the bass drum (Red arrow.) The third hit of the drum disguises the slow attack of the gong, giving the impression of a sound evolving musically from the bass drum.

 
arrow3

The siren is noted to be played loud getting gradually quieter (pp>ppp) this drop in the dynamic loudness allows the crescendo of the upper register instruments to be heard as well as the sounds that sit in the same frequency positions as the siren.

 
arrow4

The crescendo is formed by the tam-tam being introduced with the gong in virtualization techniques that also appear later within the piece. These are accompanied by the other two cymbals from players 9 and 10.

 
arrow5

The suspended cymbal here sustain the register positions of both the gong and tam-tam, this can also be viewed as sustain of the tarole drum that plays in bar five, with the cymbals re-entering immediately after.

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation - Texture II

First impressions:

As the texture begins there is a clear introduction of snare there is also a shaker of some description playing on the off beat, this is all brought to an ending by a sound acting as an effect.

Thematic instruments:

  • Tambour Militaire
  • The Lions roar (String drum)
  • 2x Maracas (1 high, 1 low)
  • 2x Bongos (1 high, 1 low)

Structual thought:

Texture I finished high in its timbre, this texture moves down the hearing registry to a more middle ranged frequency position. The transition from Texture I to Texture II also gives the listener the perception of pitch changing, ironically on non-pitched instruments. One of the main sounds to dominate this texture (and most of the other textures) is the tambour militaire , scored with a steady but changing pattern. Had Varèse used a more dominant approach (for example Sixteen 1/16th note in a 4/4 pattern) he may have over shadowed all the other instruments. In normal percussion music this is used to add drive and energy into a composition. As these are not Varèse's intentions we have to therefore presume that the tambour militaire is a main thematic part to this texture.
In the first bar there is a doubling of both the two bongos and the two maracas, both holding roughly the same register positions. The style in which the maracas are scored against the bongos suggests that using both simultaneously in this way, is attempting to increase their dynamic level, to such, that it is still clearly heard over tambour militaire. This could also be the reason why the sixteenth notes of the maracas are played when the snare is held in bar eight.

Graphic example:

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation Texture 2

Arrow discription:

arrow1

A consistent rhythmic pattern is played by the bongos yet is never repeated in this texture.

 
arrow3

A consistent pattern can be heard on the tambour militaire standing out as one of the main thematic parts to Texture II

 
arrow4

The lions roar (String drum) brings the texture to an end, the use of this is important as it gives a clear sense of pitch rising in preparation for the next texture that is placed higher up the register in terms of the timbre.

 
arrow5

The maracas during the first few bars play a part of colouring; however during bar three of this texture we see a clever swap in timbre frequency when the last beat in the bar on the snare is held with the maracas playing what seems to be the tambour militaire part.

 
arrow4

In Texture I the cymbals had been a main part of the composition; the scoring of pp lowers the dynamic level enough to not overpower the bongos or snare, leaving it to act as colouring to the lower end of the frequency scale.

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation - Texture III

First impressions:

The opening of this texture is almost identical to Texture I, before changing to a lower dynamic feel by using the tarole drum playing the part that was the tambour militaire role in Texture II. When the dynamic feel is increased, more instruments that were scored in Texture II are reintroduced, there is however also instruments that are not from Texture I or Texture II.

Thematic instruments:

  • Bass drum
  • Wood blocks (low, middle & high)
  • Small snare drum (Tarole)
  • Castanets, guiro and tambourine
  • Siren

Structual thought:

In the first three bars is a return to the same structural format as in Texture I with more emphasis placed on the dynamics., The ending of this texture also has striking characteristics to Texture II. The tambour militaire in this texture actually contradicts the analysis of Texture I. It was assumed that the tambour militaire was an ending to Texture I. However as the tambour militaire is the first instrument heard on the upbeat and also directs the overall timbral decent from a high to low. It is likely that the tambour militaire was the beginning of the Texture II rather than an ending to Texture I. So Texture III is a juxtaposing of Texture I and Texture II with the second texture starting on the fourth beat of bar four.
Texture III also includes and removes individual elements that are important in developing the piece further. The siren from Texture I is removed as the elements of Texture II begin, and does not return until bar thirty-five. The reason for this is associated with the thematic role of the guiro, castanet and tambourine play. When the siren returns to the piece these instruments are removed or reduced dramatically.
The guiro, castanet and tambourine play what in harmony would be called a melody, they are also isolated from the other instruments to emphasis their role. Their inclusion now completes all the needed elements for the following texture linear elaborations.

Preparation for following texture:

Varèse shows in the first Texture the importance of frequency positioning with scoring that avoids confliction. The black arrows indicate the first two parts played by the bass drum and gong. The white arrow shows third part of the bass drum, at this point the maracas and tambourine are also used. The similarities between the second black arrow and the white arrow indicate that if Varèse had used the tambourine or maracas they would not have been heard clearly. The pink arrows show the crescendo taking place, this is further proof of Varèse's understanding of each instruments sound development. The dark blue area of the frequency chart is not covered until the crescendo takes place, it could be feasible to suggest that other new instruments are used to cover this area; however this is not the case.

Graphic example:

cursor for Edgard Varèse - Ionisation Texture III

Arrow discription:

arrow1

The wood blocks could be placed in the same category as the guiro, castanet and tambourine; however they could also be part of a fermata, with the castanets performing the prolongation.

 
arrow3

With the return of the bass drum we see an almost identical pattern to that in the first three bars of Texture I only this time more strikes of the drum are added. Varèse has also marked this part with pp rather than p that is used in Texture I this prevents this instrument from overpowering any others

 
arrow4

The sirens are placed at the start of the piece so as not to interfere with the perception of pitched melody that is scored for the guiro castanet and tambourine. As the siren has a continuous rising pitch and the other instruments mentioned are short in decay the result of mixing the two would start to create colour, as frequency positions invariably collide.

 
arrow5

Part of Texture I although scored slightly different with the pp scored as opposed to the p. The reason behind this scoring may have been to prevent the dynamic change at bar nineteen being too dramatic

 
arrow5

The sleigh bells play the same thematic role as the guiro, castanet and tambourine creating a perception of melody with percussion there may however also be signs of friendly scoring from Varèse. Whenever the castanets are eliminated their reintroduction is helped by giving the tambourine a signaling note from which to start from.

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation - Linear Elaborations

First impressions:

A very strong sense of rhythm dominates the whole of this texture with the tambour militaire being the most dominate of all. Although rhythmic in feeling it does suggest a more disjointed approach rather than a strict 4/4 rhythm. Periodically the crash cymbal or gong is heard clearly above the other instruments although any signs of these instruments are eliminated by the time the texture is three quarters of the way through.

Thematic instruments:

  • Guiro
  • Snare (tambour militaire, side drum)
  • Bongos
  • Tambourine

Structual thought:

Two bars open a familiar sounding timbre; the change that follows introduces articulation by using all three of the previous textures in a rhythmic change. The bongo's hold the key to this as it exchanges parts throughout the linear elaborations with the tambour militaire, helped further in the exchange by the maracas and wood blocks. Bar twenty six sees further evidence of elaborations taking place with the tarole rhythmically filling the space of the tambour militaire and bongos, with the tambour militaire now acting as a fermata.
Split into two definable elaborations the first is concluded with three wood blocks from high to low creating a cadence feeling.
The start of the second of the elaborations sees a trading once more of the tambour militaire and bongos only this time the side drum moves the perception of pitch down. This approach is also incorporated into the ending of this elaboration where the pitch is lowered further by the bass drum, at which point the tarole retakes the place of the tambour militaire. The gong and tam-tams are deliberately noted in a way that suggests that their roll in this texture is a further sustaining of the timbre, much in the same way as the tambourine and sleigh bells. However the gong and sleigh bells are removed at bar thirty-four in preparation for the virtualization of the textures that follows.

Preparation for following texture:

The following example demonstrates why Varèse needed to eliminate these instruments in preparation for the following texture.

Even when playing the final cymbal a bar before the ending of the texture the decay of the cymbal fall into what would be first of the virtualization of parts.

Graphic example:

cursor for Edgard Varèse - Ionisation Linear Elaborations

Frequency analysis:

Using almost identical instruments to Varèse the spectrograph shows how each instrument sits on the frequency scale. When all the instruments come together at the point of virtualization the example attempts to create a chord in percussion, showing that none of the instruments timbres collide in respect to their frequency position.

Arrow discription:

arrow1

Long decays are not ideal in the textures of elaborations therefore Varèse has used a bass drum laid flat to ensure that the low bass is still available in elaboration process, but without the long decay that would be produced from player three's bass drum at this stage in the score.

 
arrow3

The tarole plays an important part in bringing the sense of pitch of the elaborations lower, just enough to prepare the other instruments for the start of the second elaborations. It achieves this by taking the rhythmic parts of the bongos and the tambour militaire, while elaborating itself with a trading of notes from player nines snare drum.

 
arrow4

Unlike the other parts to this section the sleigh bells and tambourine act as further sustain/colouring to the high end of the audible range, allowing the other elaborations (bongo's, castanets, tambour militaire, guiro and wood blocks) to be more disjointed. These also contribute to the perception of falling pitch at bar twenty-seven

 
arrow5

The first two bars represent the start of the linear elaborations although they are arguably Texture II in a two bar move.

 
arrow5

With three textures already developed the first two bars seem to suggest a much shortened version of Texture II. However as linear elaborations in harmony require a initial tune to elaborate from, here we see Varèse use Texture II as the initial tune with bars twenty-three to twenty-seven being a mixture of three textures.

 
arrow5

Throughout this texture Varèse makes use of the instruments frequencies position emphasized in the fall from a high timbre to a lower timbre exchange in preparation for the virtualization that follows. The guiro and siren have now become the sustaining instruments with the bongos, side drum and maracas performing the linear elaborations. None of the high resonance metallic instruments are used in this section as their decay would overlap or overpower the gong and tam-tams that are introduced at bar thirty-eight. With bar thirty-eight being the start of virtualization it seems imperative that any decay from instruments is brought to an end before this bar. This may also explain the scoring of pp to ppp for the siren

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation - Verticalization of Textures

First impressions:

A sudden increase in volume is heard as this section starts followed by what could be described as pots and pans being hit with no apparent pattern. At the introduction of this piece there is also a very military feel. Once more the bass drum also seems to be playing and is the only low sound we hear, as all the other parts are of the high sounding nature.

Thematic instruments:

  • Tambour Militaire
  • 2x Maracas (1 high, 1 low)
  • Bass drum
  • Tambourine

Structual thought:

For the first time a clear distinctive pattern cannot only be heard but also seen within the score. A chording of instruments takes place from the first beat of the first bar throughout until the conclusion of this section. The militaire snare is the only exception to this playing a main part by filling the middle section of the register, also being the only instrument that has any free will with the other instruments playing a more strict rhythm. The bass drum is also featured as a key element to the latter half of the texture being heard as it trades beats with the wood blocks, bongos and tambourine.
Throughout the piece there is also a use of register levels, to start the texture a full coloring of middle high sounds, accompanied by the middle section of the register, dominated by the snare,
The bass drum gives an impression of more bass than is actually being played. Looking at the score the single hits appear to be used when no other low sounds are in use, also entering when there is a low note count, making the reverberate qualities of the bass drum stand out. Had the bass drum been placed at a point where many notes were being played the reverb/sustain of the drum may well have been drowned out, as it is, it creates warmth at the lower end of the register.

Graphic example:

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation Verticalization of Textures

Arrow discription:

arrow1

The bass drum plays an important part here, when it is introduced during the latter half of the piece we see that it is the only low tone sound present. Had Varèse used the bongos at the same time as the bass drum it would have been inconsistent with the separation of register levels that can be heard in this texture.

 
arrow3

The instruments used in this texture are placed in a vertical fashion in an attempt to create chords (normally associate with harmony) and tones. For this to be possible Varèse would need to know approximately where in relation to their frequency position each instrument was. Playing two or more instruments of the same frequency position may change the timbral perception slightly, but is more likely to result in an increase in the dynamics.

 
arrow4

The snare (a thematic part throughout) plays a type of call and response between the other instruments present; this could also be seen as colouring of the register and at the same time adding motion to the stricter patterns the other percussion parts are playing.

 
arrow5

Wood blocks play in unison with maracas and tarole in the latter half of the texture What is most interesting about the blocks parts is how the lowest of the three blocks is not used when either of the other two mentioned instruments are playing, this suggests that had Varèse used the lower blocks at the same time as maracas and tarole they would not have been heard. What does seem likely for the inclusion of low blocks is to add pre-emphasis on the up and coming bass drums that follow immediately after each appearance; however this and the other three played instruments could be merely continuing in the concept of the texture by being part of a created chording of timbre.

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation - Texture I Version II

First impressions:

A return to the metallic sonority from Texture I is accompanied by the use of the anvils that play in the fashion of a melody. The siren is also dominate although noted louder than in Texture I. a similar approach is used to end the texture with a snare playing four beats in quick succession.

Thematic instruments:

  • Siren
  • Cymbals
  • Anvils
  • Tambour militaire

Structual thought:

The return of Texture I but this time the metallic instruments dominate throughout. Different also to Texture I is the scoring for anvils. The triangle also plays a dominate role for the first time. Instead of adding colour to the high end of the hearing register, it acts as part of the dynamic build up of the texture, at the same time complementing the anvils with what can be best described as a underlining of colour. Another main thematic part is the siren standing out more clearly than Texture I.
This texture is effectively half the size in bars from the first appearance of Texture I. Giving reason as to why the dynamic scoring brings the siren in more quickly; this could also be to compensate for the lack of a bass drum that is a key part to Texture I. The ending of this texture also incorporates the same thematic approach as Texture I and Texture III by using the tarole in a quick fashion, giving the statement that the texture has now finished or as explained earlier the next texture has just started.

Preparation for following texture:

The anvils become part of the linear elaborations that follow this texture. therefore the exclusion of the bass drum is important to prevent this section being confused as part of the linear elaborations, the gong, tam-tam and triangle occupying the high end of the register, and the anvils covering the middle section. The inclusion of the bass drum scored in the same way as Texture I would result in a texture that moves quickly up and down the frequency scale, not doing so has left a texture that has colouring but is also attempting melody with anvils.

Graphic example:

cursor for Edgard Varèse - Ionisation Texture 1

Arrow discription:

arrow1
arrow2

Again the return of the gong; however this time unlike the first appearance of this texture the bass drum is not present. As the other sounds in this section are higher than the bass drum the question may also arise as to why the bass drum was not used more. When considering its role in the first few bars, the reason for leaving the bass drum out may be because the siren is introduced with more volume and more emphasis than the first appearance of Texture I. An alternative view could be to prevent this section being confused with linear elaborations

 
arrow3

The triangle in this version of Texture I is used to create a sense of dynamic increase as the crescendo builds from the start of this texture until its end.

 
arrow4

By this point the siren is an established thematic part, very similar to the first appearance of this texture; however the scoring shows a more sudden arrival to the peak of the sirens dynamic range, indicated by the expressions pp to mf in the space of one bar. In the first bar this was spread over three bars.

 
arrow5

For the first time in the score is the introduction of the Anvils is felt. Although not present in the first playing of this texture its role in this texture is to add a perception of melody, finally joining the other instruments used for linear elaborations in the texture that follows.

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation - Linear Elaborations Version II

First impressions:

The most dominate sound heard throughout this piece is the snare; this is only overpowered by the siren that ends this sections with what is best described as a scream sound. The elaborations that took place in the first version of this texture are present with the exception of the tambourine being removed; the anvils are also a new addition to the elaborations.

Thematic instruments:

  • Triangle
  • Tarole
  • Anvils
  • Gong
  • Siren

Structual thought:

Player 7's triangle and player 10's cymbal play a main part in sustaining the timbre, while the wood blocks perform a rhythmic pattern almost identical to bars twenty-three and twenty-four. As in the first version of this texture the role of the wood blocks stays the same, playing one of the parts to the elaborations. When there is no scoring for the wood blocks there role is taken on by the anvils. An almost identical part to bar twenty-six is also played by the tarole drum at bar fifty-six. The scoring of the tarole also adds a rattle Sonority to the texture. A consistent presence of the gong and tam-tam add timbral characteristics of the three main textures (Texture I, II & III). Unlike the first linear elaborations this version includes the siren adding pitch movement as the anvils give the impression of melody within percussion.

Graphic example:

Image of the score focusing on Linear Elaborations Version 2

Arrow discription:

arrow1
arrow2

The metallic sonority from Texture I dominate the higher ranges of the hearing register. Their inclusion is also fundamental in the perception of elaborations taking place.

 
arrow3

The anvils are used as one of the main thematic elements to elaborations. Their short attack and short decay ensure that they are heard clearly over the other metallic instruments. The scoring suggests a fragmented version of the motif that is played on the tarole at bar fifty-six.

 
arrow4

Playing a similar pattern to Texture II, the tambour militaire is scored to elaborate musically with the bongos, also joining the anvils in near identical scoring as the crescendo begins at bar sixty-two.

 
arrow5

The inclusion of the motif on the tarole drum is beginning to suggest that it is one of two roles in the piece. Firstly it could be seen as a subject, as it has appeared several times and also been mimicked by other instruments. However the fugue that is normally associated with subjects does not seem to be present. Therefore it could be seen as an episodic figure (episode) as throughout it has joined parts, or been a digression from the main thematic parts.

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation - Culmination of Elaborations

First impressions:

As the texture opens an extensive use of the bass drum is contrasted by sounds that are familiar to all the textures heard up to this point. The most obvious of these are the anvils from version two of Texture I. A decline in instruments used is heard as the tarole plays a short solo before being joined again by the anvils. The final sounds heard in this texture give the impression of an almighty roll or conclusion.

Thematic instruments:

  • 3 x Bass drum
  • Siren
  • Tambour militaire
  • Wood blocks
  • Anvils

Structual thought:

The opening three bars are an accumulation of the elaborations that took part in the first three bars of Linear elaborations version I. Bar seventy-two is a repeating of the rhythmic pattern that appeared in Texture III and Linear elaborations I & II. As this part repeats itself it seems to be detached from the any other parts, it may therefore be considered as an episodic figure.
As the title suggests this is a coming together of all the elements of elaborations creating a climax to the elaborations; however when looking at bar seventy-three a scoring that was original part of the Verticalization of textures is used to end the texture.

Graphic example:

Image of the score focusing on Culmination of Elaborations

Arrow discription:

arrow1

The castanets play a shared role with the anvils playing an arpeggio of the episodic figure played by the tarole drum at bar seventy-two. The castanets also take part in an effect with the cymbal of player nine. When the cymbals part has finished at bar seventy-two the castanets are scored in demisemiquaver, to be played soft to loud in very quick motion. Considering the cymbal has a long decay, this scoring suggests the shorts decay of the castanets is acting as an articulation between the cymbal and the two bass drums that follow in the next bar, in effect holding the elaborations together.

 
arrow3

As explained this motif has a role of an episodic figure and can been seen through out the score in either its full form or in an arpeggio pattern with other associated instruments. When taking this approach into account the bongo's motif may also be scored in the same way, however the bongos do not seem to be isolated parts when listening to the composition as a whole, playing more of a thematic role in the textures it is scored in.

 
arrow4

Three separate levels of the hearing register are used to create the effect of elaborations. The bass drums occupy the lower ranges of the register, while the wood blocks and castanets fill the middle range of the register. The introduction of the anvils in Texture I version II now becomes apparent. As it sits at the higher end of the frequency scale it needs to be an instrument with a short decay to enable it to be part of the elaborations (due to the gong and tam-tam being present in this texture). The only other metallic instrument used with these properties is the triangle; however the triangle is not an instrument with a high dynamic level. As the final four bars of this texture suggest a crescendo is taking place, this instrument may be considered too quiet for the task of elaborations. Therefore if this had been the first use of the anvils one would expect this to be a new individual texture, or as the case is in Texture I version II, a second version of a Texture I

 
arrow5

The pattern here suggests that the final two beats of the bar are a very quick return to virtualization of scored notes. Judging by the way these were perceived in the Verticalization of textures, one would expect to hear the perception of a chord, however the quick playing produces a very fast crescendo in the timbre of a roll, moving through the hearing register until being met with a cymbal in the following texture. Looking at the score for the following texture (conclusion) shows that Varèse has also chosen to use a quaver rest to prevent any clashes of frequency positions from the instruments used in the conclusion texture. This may have also been in consideration of the players, as it is very likely that they will not have played each note at the same time at such a quick pace.

Edgard Varèse - Ionisation - Conclusion

First impressions:

A dramatic use of all instruments is in use, also a piano stands from the rest of the instrument although it plays as if someone was walking on it rather than actually playing it. Bells reminding one of Christmas/church setting are also heard above the other instruments. Any pattern or rhythm that had taken place is now gone, changing into a falling feeling not dissimilar to a coda. The siren is also used dominating the start of this texture.

Thematic instruments:

  • Piano
  • Tubular chimes
  • Crash cymbal

Structual thought:

As the texture opens high in dynamic level, siren one is clearly heard. Reaching its dynamic peak as the second siren joins it, half way through the first scored part of this texture. This is then followed by the first introduction of the piano; Varèse makes a special point of introducing a new technique here for the piano. The style of notation directs the player to use his/her forearm to play as many notes as possible, keeping within the scored range; in practice creating a technique that combines the many different tonal qualities into one colour/timbre. This has also required Varèse to introduce a new graphic symbol to represent this action.
Another thematic piece of this texture is the tubular chimes. With having such a long decay these fit almost perfectly with the action of the piano, creating an individual feeling of falling, as well as a colouring of the register between itself and the piano. There are also similarities to Texture I and Texture II, a degree of juxtaposing of the two textures is felt as the texture starts. The gongs and tam-tams of Texture I are present, followed immediately by the snare (tambour militaire) playing an almost identical part to that of Texture II.
Throughout, all of the textures register positions has played a key part in positioning of notes, this is shown at is best as the piano and the cymbal play together, both are dominate sounding instruments but clearly the piano at bar seventy-six is acting as added reverberation that were created by the previous forearm strikes of the piano.

Graphic example:

Image of the score focusing on Conclusion

Arrow discription:

arrow1

What is most surprising about the snares is how they still seem to hold the most dominance over what is already high polyphonic section. What makes this stand out the most is how the snare actually succeeds in softening the fall of the other instruments in the final two bars.

 
arrow3

Used only in the conclusion the piano acts as a key element to this texture, by using the technique of forearm playing, a high degree of the register positions are covered, at the same time a high amount of reverberation is created which is further complimented by the adding of more conventional piano parts, together these sustain the effect until the first tubular bells are played increasing this effect further.

 
arrow4

The siren uses the same pattern as seen in Texture I, going some way further to seeing the Conclusion as not a single texture, but more a juxtaposing of Texture I & II with the Piano and Tubular bells being a possible progression that could be called Texture IV (three is clearly a mixture of Textures one and two). However as this is the last section of the piece it must be seen as a coda or a conclusion.

 
arrow5

The gong and tam-tam hold patterns not to dissimilar to that of Texture I, while the snare plays a fragmented version of Texture II. The gong and tam-tam also play an important part in the decrease in dynamic level by being scored p & pp. The exception to this is in the eighty-ninth bar when all instruments of the high register bringing their dynamic level to a peak before being scored ppp and falling into a faded finale.

 
arrow5

Although only short in their parts the blocks help create a sudden switch in pitch perception which is carried on by the bongs.

 
arrow gold

One of the most dominate parts to the texture creating a daunting sound to the finale while at the same time creating warm reverb with the piano.

 
 

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